Pre- and Post-Test Comparative Analysis of Social and Behavior Change Communication: Thematic Module on Sanitation and Hygiene – Mozambique
Social and behavior change communication (SBCC) is an evidence-based strategy for improving health and nutrition by increasing and improving knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). The Gender and Nutrition-Sensitive Transformation (GTNS) project implements CCSC activities, alongside resilience and post-harvest loss interventions, with the aim of contributing to the empowerment of women and the reduction of stunting among children in Sofala, Mozambique. The SBCC strategy uses three approaches to achieve this goal: community mobilization, interpersonal counseling and media. Activities under the three approaches are categorized into three main themes within the project: nutrition,
Gender and sexual and reproductive health.
The nutrition theme is subdivided into four thematic modules: infant and young child feeding (IYCF), maternal nutrition, malaria prevention, and sanitation and hygiene. This report focuses on the interpersonal counseling approach of the thematic module on sanitation and hygiene. These sessions targeted all of the 1,500 project households, in particular households with children under 2 and their spouses.
When implementing SBCC activities aimed specifically at reducing or preventing stunting, it is essential to engage in rigorous monitoring, as behavior change is a slow process and may not have significant impact on project results when looking only at the final indicators.
However, this does not mean that the project’s efforts are not progressing at the individual level. Tracking knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to stunting reduction and prevention can help project implementers better understand the willingness to change and actual change related to desired outcomes. To measure the influence of the project on beneficiaries, the project conducted pre- and post-test surveys on a sample of 120 beneficiaries immediately before and after each thematic interpersonal counseling module focusing on knowledge, intention, self-efficacy (confidence) and self-reported behavior. Using a comparative analysis, this report presents findings for the thematic module on sanitation and hygiene.
The pre-test and post-test questionnaire on sanitation and hygiene included eleven questions divided into six categories, on nine indicators:
• Reminder of key messages on sanitation and hygiene
• Knowledge of disease prevention practices
• Hand washing and its health benefits
• Water treatment before consumption
• Knowledge of diarrhea symptoms and treatment
• Culinary demonstrations
Beneficiaries of the project in Chemba district have been exposed to national sanitation and hygiene campaigns and the results of the pre-tests reflect this effort in which there is a good amount of knowledge, favorable attitudes and good practices around good sanitation and hygiene practices to prevent disease. Nevertheless, the results showed a clear positive influence on eight of the nine indicators when comparing pre-test and post-test results for sanitation and hygiene promotion, especially understanding the importance of washing hands before preparing food and/or eating, and after cleaning a baby’s buttocks or bottom. using latrines. Pre and post test results also demonstrate a need for ongoing messaging and advice on where to seek treatment for diarrhea.